There are two different levels of charging. Level one charging is the slower method as it uses a 120 V/15 A single-phase grounded outlet. Level two is a faster method; existing Level 2 equipment offers charging from 208 V or 240 V (at up to 80 A, 19.2 kW). It may require dedicated equipment and a connection installation for home or public units, although vehicles such as the Tesla have the power electronics on board and need only the outlet.[76] The optimum charging window for Lithium ion batteries is 3-4.2 V. Recharging with a 120 volt household outlet takes several hours, a 240 volt charger takes 1–4 hours, and a quick charge takes approximately 30 minutes to achieve 80% charge. Three important factors—distance on charge, cost of charging, and time to charge [77] In order for the hybrid to run on electrical power, the car must perform the action of braking in order to generate some electricity. The electricity then gets discharged most effectively when the car accelerates or climbs up an incline. In 2014, hybrid electric car batteries can run on solely electricity for 70–130 miles (110–210 km) on a single charge. Hybrid battery capacity currently ranges from 4.4 kWh to 85 kWh on a fully electric car. On a hybrid car, the battery packs currently range from 0.6 kWh to 2.4 kWh representing a large difference in use of electricity in hybrid cars.[78]

Although petro-hydraulic hybrid technology has been known for decades, and used in trains and very large construction vehicles, high costs of the equipment precluded the systems from lighter trucks and cars. In the modern sense an experiment proved the viability of small petro-hydraulic hybrid road vehicles in 1978. A group of students at Minneapolis, Minnesota's Hennepin Vocational Technical Center, converted a Volkswagen Beetle car to run as a petro-hydraulic hybrid using off-the shelf components. A car rated at 32 mpg‑US (7.4 L/100 km; 38 mpg‑imp) was returning 75 mpg‑US (3.1 L/100 km; 90 mpg‑imp) with the 60 hp engine replaced by a 16 hp engine. The experimental car reached 70 mph (110 km/h).[20]

Nonetheless, unibody SUVs remained rare until the 1984 Jeep Cherokee (XJ) was intruduced and became a sales success. The introduction of the 1993 Jeep Grand Cherokee resulted in all Jeep SUV models using unibody construction,[28] with many other brands following suit since the mid-1990s. Today, most SUVs in production use a unibody construction and relatively few models continue to use a body-on-frame construction.
New "official" size designations in the U.S. were introduced by the EPA, which defined market segments by passenger and cargo space.[10] Formerly mid-sized cars that were built on the same platform, like the AMC Matador sedan, had a combined passenger and cargo volume of 130 cubic feet (3.68 m3), and were now considered "full-size" automobiles.[11][12]
One of the most prohibitive initial factors to the potential civilian market popularity of an SUV-like car lay in its costs, and availability of certain critical parts. Before the war, adding four-wheel drive to a car almost doubled its cost,[54] Compared to a common, rear-wheel drive vehicle, any 4WD needed a number of essential extra components, like a transfer case, and a second differential and constant-velocity joints for the driven front axle — all expensive components, because of the precision involved in manufacturing gears and such. In America these were produced up to the war only by a few specialized firms with limited capacity, but due to the war's necessity, from spring 1942 Ford, Dodge and Chevrolet joined in fabricating these parts in mass quantity, boosting their production more than 100-fold.[55]
Regenerate Braking.[further explanation needed]The drivetrain can be used to convert kinetic energy (from the moving car) into stored electrical energy (batteries). The same electric motor that powers the drivetrain is used to resist the motion of the drivetrain. This applied resistance from the electric motor causes the wheel to slow down and simultaneously recharge the batteries.
On top of that solid foundation, the 530e adds a more efficient powertrain that allows the driver to travel further between fill-ups. With its 9.2-kWh battery pack fully charged, the plug-in 5 can travel for about 29 miles on electric power alone, or achieve an EPA-estimated 72 mpge in hybrid mode. That’s with rear-wheel drive; selecting all-wheel drive lowers that figure to 67 mpge.

Not only do Toyota hybrids follow the same maintenance schedule of every 6 months or 8,000 KM (whichever comes first), but the way the hybrid system works can reduce how often other areas of the car need servicing. In a hybrid, the engines are off some of the time, the brakes are regenerative, saving pad & rotor life, there is no transmission fluid under load, and there are no starters, alternators or belts to be replaced.


The Range Rover helped define the modern SUV, and it’s still one of the best examples of the breed around. With a luxurious interior and impressive off-road capabilities, it’s hard to think of a vehicle that offers more in a single package. Now, the Range Rover is also available as a plug-in hybrid, part of a plan by Land Rover and sibling Jaguar to offer electrified powertrains in every new model.
When describing cars, the battery of a series-hybrid is usually charged by being plugged in - but a series-hybrid may also allow for a battery to only act as a buffer (and for regeneration purposes), and for the electric motor's power to be supplied constantly by a supporting engine. Series arrangements have been common in diesel-electric locomotives and ships. Ferdinand Porsche effectively invented this arrangement in speed-record-setting racing cars in the early 20th century, such as the Lohner-Porsche Mixte Hybrid. Porsche named his arrangement "System Mixt" and it was a wheel hub motor design, where each of the two front wheels was powered by a separate motor. This arrangement was sometimes referred to as an electric transmission, as the electric generator and driving motor replaced a mechanical transmission. The vehicle could not move unless the internal combustion engine was running.
The first published prototype of an SHB is by Augustus Kinzel (US Patent 3'884'317) in 1975. In 1994 Bernie Macdonalds conceived the Electrilite[4] SHB with power electronics allowing regenerative braking and pedaling while stationary. In 1995 Thomas Muller designed and built a "Fahrrad mit elektromagnetischem Antrieb" for his 1995 diploma thesis. In 1996 Jürg Blatter and Andreas Fuchs of Berne University of Applied Sciences built an SHB and in 1998 modified a Leitra tricycle (European patent EP 1165188). Until 2005 they built several prototype SH tricycles and quadricycles.[5] In 1999 Harald Kutzke described an "active bicycle": the aim is to approach the ideal bicycle weighing nothing and having no drag by electronic compensation.

PSA Peugeot Citroën exhibited an experimental "Hybrid Air" engine at the 2013 Geneva Motor Show.[51] The vehicle uses nitrogen gas compressed by energy harvested from braking or deceleration to power a hydraulic drive which supplements power from its conventional gasoline engine. The hydraulic and electronic components were supplied by Robert Bosch GmbH. Mileage was estimated to be about 118 mpg‑US (2 L/100 km; 142 mpg‑imp) on the Euro test cycle if installed in a Citroën C3 type of body.[52][53] PSA Although the car was ready for production and was proven and feasible delivering the claimed results, Peugeot Citroën were unable to attract a major manufacturer to share the high development costs and are shelving the project until a partnership can be arranged.[54]
The Pacifica Hybrid does all the things customers demand of a minivan — it carries eight passengers, offers creative interior storage options, bundles front and rear rider entertainment, and rides smoothly. Beyond these check boxes, the Chrysler van uses its plug-in hybrid powertrain to deliver 33 miles of all-electric range and 500-plus total miles of gas-electric range. Furthermore, the Pacifica doesn’t bore you to death with its exterior styling, power, or handling.
[MUSIC PLAYING] ELANA SCHERR: This is the 2019 Nissan Rogue. It has newly added driver safety aides, a comfortable ride, and plenty of room for cargo and people. But is that enough for the Rogue to compete with more recently redesigned small SUVs? Let's find out. If you like these videos, subscribe to our channel. And make sure you visit Edmunds for all your car shopping needs. The initial door open on the Nissan Rogue is sort of a surprise, like a happy surprise. And it does look really nice, especially in these upper trims, where you can get different color leatherette, and shiny piano black. There is a lot of hard plastic still in this car. I guess I would call it semi hard plastic. It actually feels better than it looks, except on the steering wheel. This is just a really weird decision that the Nissan designers made. There's a heated steering wheel, which seems super luxurious. I would have given that up to just have a nicer material on the steering wheel. I just don't want to touch it. It's like I want to drive it like this. But the rest of the materials feel pretty good. The front seats are very firm, maybe even a little too firm for long term driving comfort. And the space in the front is a little bit cramped. Tall people don't have the most head room, maybe partially because of the sunroof. And the seats are narrow. Also, on the passenger side, the way that the dash comes in around the knee is difficult for taller passengers. The back seats, however, are really spacious. There's a great amount of room back there. And I would say it's actually more comfortable to ride in the back of the Rogue than it is to drive it. A lot of the safety stuff that people are starting to expect in these cars is standard on the Rogue. And it all works very well, which is good, because the car has a pretty big blind spot. There's also a lot of good infotainment controls. Apple and Android, which is something that some of the competitors do not offer. It's got a touch screen that's small, but works well, and is easy to see. But the controls for everything are just all over the place. It's almost like this is a car that was designed many years ago. (WHISPERING) It was. And they decided to add in all of the new technology, but they hadn't originally designed the car to have space for it. (WHISPERING) I think that's true. So there's this kind of strange Easter egg hunt that you get to do every time you want to control. Like hm, the heated steering wheel is over here. And also the sport and eco modes are over here. But the heated seats are down here. And the camera's over here. You have to remember where things are. I like it better when you kind of have the idea like, oh, all the climate stuff is here, and all of the safety control is here. There's room for small stuff in the console. Again, some strange decisions made about what and where. There is a cell phone pocket back here, the big cup holders. And there's sort of like a weird square spot up here that has a rubber no slip mat as if it's for holding a cell phone. But it would only work if you had a perfectly square cell phone. And there's a USB port and a 12 volt. I would say that that about covers it for the magic in the front seat of the Rogue. Let's take a look at the backseat. The backseat of the Rogue is, again, a mix of things that are thoughtful and things that could have used a little more thought. First, the good stuff. It's comfortable. It looks nice. There's a lot of leg room. It's adjustable, which is kind of nice for a second row. They aren't always. And the seat belts tuck away. So if you're sliding across to the middle, you don't hit your bum against them. But there are no USB ports. Could use a little more headroom. And the armrest is kind of a lot of work. In many ways the Rogue trails its competitors. It doesn't have the most horsepower and it doesn't get the best miles per gallon. But it shines in cargo space. It has the most. 39.3 with the seats up, and 70 with them down. That's kind of a lot for a little car. More than that, the storage is really clever. Nissan calls it Ride and Hide, Hide and Drive, Divide and Conquer, Divide and Hide. What it means is that what looks like the floor is actually covers that lift up so you can put valuable stuff here and no one will know that it's in the car. Here's the Divide and Hide in shelf mode. So you can see, you could put something underneath, and then still have stuff on top. Plus, one of the video guys just pointed out that you could use this as a workspace. You can get the Rogue in a variety of trim options. There is S, SV, and SL, as well as SV and SL Hybrid. We're in the top of the line SL all wheel drive. And it keeps making me laugh every time I see the badge on the back, because the SL and the all wheel drive are kind of right up against each other. And it looks like it says slawd. Like s'lord, it's hot in here. Anyhow, all bad southern accents aside, the engine options for everything except the hybrid are the same. It is a 2.5 liter four cylinder backed by a CVT style transmission. And I hate it. Sorry. It's just a really, really, really disappointing engine combination. It's 170 horsepower, which just isn't enough for a vehicle of this size. Even though some CVTs are starting to feel more like geared transmissions and not do that sad, drony vacuum cleaner thing, this one is not like that. It does do the sad, drony vacuum cleaner thing. In fact, the engine noise is really annoying. I've been trying to feel better about it by pretending it's cute, like a little baby lion roaring. Rawr. So I don't like that. I think the car is loud. It also has a bunch of wind noise. The responsiveness of the various inputs, meaning the steering and the throttle are acceptable, but not outstanding. Imagine it like this. You're at lunch with a friend, and that friend is either on their phone, or thinking about something else, and so they're sort of paying attention to you. Like they're making, mhm and yeah noises at all the right places in the conversation. But you don't really feel like you have their full attention and that they're really that responsive. And that is sort of how I feel about the steering in this car. It's turning the car, but sort of numb and disconnectedly. The Rogue does offer some of Nissan's highest tech driving assists, including warnings if you're going out of your lane, and adaptive cruise control, which works very well, and even a steering assist, which is like a semi self-driving. So it wants you to have your hands on the wheel and be paying attention, but it will make some steering corrections for you when you have that turned on, along with adaptive cruise control. They all go together. I tested all of that on the freeway in stop and go traffic. And I was impressed at the fact that it would work at very slow speeds, which not all adaptive cruise controls will let you put them on when it's less than 25 miles per hour. That's kind of when you want it the most. This works at very slow speeds. It was a nice break on my ankle when I was driving back from San Diego and three hours of stop and go traffic. So that does work. I don't love the self steering thing. I just am a control freak. I like steering. Steering's fun. Setting the adaptive cruise control and the steering is really easy, and it's very obvious when it's on. It's like a big, green banner kind of across the gauges, which is excellent. You're never wondering if you've accidentally turned it off or what. You know exactly what's happening. Some of the other controls, like if you want the alarm for a blind spot warning, or if you want it to beep when you're in or out of a lane, they're buried a little bit further in the menus in here, and it's not hard to find them if you're parked. But it's more than you would want to be staring at the screen while you're driving. So bear that in mind if you don't like the beeps. The Rogue's design hasn't changed a whole lot since, I think, 2014 when it first came out. And that's super noticeable in how thick this A pillar is and how bad the visibility is sort of for the blind spot and in the back. I feel like car designers are really working hard right now to make those things better. And this pillar, for me, is really difficult to see, especially on curvy roads. I mean, it is right where I want to be. You kind of end up doing what I call the curious owl, which is like when you're going around corners, trying to see around the pillar. It's like a dance. The S models of the Rogue start at around $25,000. And this one, with all the bells and whistles, is $36,000. I'm just going to say it. I wouldn't want to pay $36,000 for this car. I just don't feel like it's $36,000 worth of driving enjoyment. There are other cars you can buy for $36,000 that are better, just like across the board better. But I was talking to the gang back at the office, especially the folks who help with the buyer's guides and stuff on the Edmunds website. And they were pointing out that Nissan offers amazing rebates. And so I looked it up on my own computer, and immediately was sent an offer for a car with like $9,000 off. So assuming that you could get a car like this for like $28,000, well, now, that's a really good deal. It gets to a point where nobody else would offer this much for that amount of money. So where does the Rogue end up? Well, for the same amount of money, you could get the more attractive and way more fun to drive Mazda CX5, the better equipped, and our most highly rated in the segment, Honda CRV. Or just to throw you a curve ball, the Jeep Wrangler. It's not that the Rogue is awful. It's just that the competition is stellar. Hey, give us a follow on Instagram, Twitter, and Facebook.

Not only do Toyota hybrids follow the same maintenance schedule of every 6 months or 8,000 KM (whichever comes first), but the way the hybrid system works can reduce how often other areas of the car need servicing. In a hybrid, the engines are off some of the time, the brakes are regenerative, saving pad & rotor life, there is no transmission fluid under load, and there are no starters, alternators or belts to be replaced.

Land Rover promises the plug-in hybrid powertrain doesn’t compromise off-road ability, and it even claims the P400e’s all-electric mode allows for greater control at low speeds on slippery surfaces (on the road, Land Rover claims 31 miles of all-electric range). This plug-in hybrid SUV can wade into 35.4 inches of water, according to Land Rover, without sacrificing comfort. It also sports a luxurious, leather-lined interior and Land Rover’s latest InControl Touch Pro Duo infotainment system, with two 10.0-inch touchscreens.
The Prime has an EPA-rated all-electric range of 25 mi (40 km), over twice the range of the first generation model, and an EPA rated fuel economy of 133 mpg‑e (25.9 kW⋅h/100 mi) in all-electric mode (EV mode), the highest MPGe rating in EV mode of any vehicle rated by EPA with an internal combustion engine.[89][14] Among all-electric cars, only the Hyundai Ioniq Electric has a higher energy efficiency, rated at 136 mpg‑e (25.3 kW⋅h/100 mi; 15.7 kW⋅h/100 km).[14][15]

While the Chrysler Pacifica Hybrid could earn a spot on this list simply for being the only hybrid minivan on the market, that’s not the reason we’ve included it (nor is that the reason we chose it as our best daily driver car of 2017). Rather, we fell in love with this people-mover for its blend of handsome styling, innovative features, comfortable ride, and driving dynamics (yes, we just said a minivan was fun to drive).
Dual Power. Power can come from either the engine, motor or both depending on driving circumstances. Additional power to assist the engine in accelerating or climbing might be provided by the electric motor. Or more commonly, a smaller electric motor provides all of the power for low-speed driving conditions and is augmented by the engine at higher speeds.
Toyota hybrids have been designed to offer our customers similar or even greater levels of performance versus their conventional gas counterparts. The instant torque of electric motors not only helps hybrid vehicles accelerate off the line, but allows for very refined and direct acceleration. Electric motors can also add to the total horsepower rating. As an example, RAV4 Hybrid delivers more horsepower and faster acceleration versus our conventionally powered model. That extra power can enable Toyota to develop smaller, lighter engines. Those lighter engines, combined with enhanced battery placement, can result in improved handling.
The predecessors to SUVs date back to military and low-volume models from the late 1930s, and the four-wheel drive station wagons / carryalls that began to be introduced in 1949. The 1984 Jeep Cherokee (XJ) is considered to be the first SUV in the modern style. Most SUVs produced today use unibody contruction (as per passenger cars), however in the past many SUVs used body-on-frame construction.
The current-generation Prius is also appreciably sportier than previous models, thanks to changes like a lower center of gravity and a more sophisticated double-wishbone independent rear suspension system. Like other Toyota models, the Prius also gets the Toyota Safety Sense suite of driver-assistance features (including adaptive cruise control and a pre-collision system with pedestrian detection) as standard equipment.

Cumulative Prius sales in Europe reach 100,000 in 2008 and 200,000 units by mid-2010, after 10 years on that market. The UK is one of the leading European markets for Prius, accounting more than 20 percent of all Priuses sold in Europe.[117] Toyota Prius became Japan's best selling vehicle in 2009 for the first time since its debut in 1997 as its sales almost tripled to 208,876 in 2009.[118] In that year it overtook the Honda Fit, which was Japan's best-selling car in 2008 excluding Kei cars.


The Prius uses an all-electric A/C compressor for cooling, an industry first.[44] Combined with a smaller and lighter NiMH battery, the XW20 is more powerful and more efficient than the XW10.[45] In the US, the battery pack of 2004 and later models is warranted for 150,000 miles (240,000 km) or 10 years in states that have adopted the stricter California emissions control standards, and 100,000 miles (160,000 km) or 8 years elsewhere.[46][47] The warranty for hybrid components is 100,000 miles (160,000 km) or 8 years.[48]
New "official" size designations in the U.S. were introduced by the EPA, which defined market segments by passenger and cargo space.[10] Formerly mid-sized cars that were built on the same platform, like the AMC Matador sedan, had a combined passenger and cargo volume of 130 cubic feet (3.68 m3), and were now considered "full-size" automobiles.[11][12]
The predecessors to SUVs date back to military and low-volume models from the late 1930s, and the four-wheel drive station wagons / carryalls that began to be introduced in 1949. The 1984 Jeep Cherokee (XJ) is considered to be the first SUV in the modern style. Most SUVs produced today use unibody contruction (as per passenger cars), however in the past many SUVs used body-on-frame construction.
A series- or serial-hybrid vehicle is driven by an electric motor, functioning as an electric vehicle while the battery pack energy supply is sufficient, with an engine tuned for running as a generator when the battery pack is insufficient. There is typically no mechanical connection between the engine and the wheels, and the primary purpose of the range extender is to charge the battery. Series-hybrids have also been referred to as extended range electric vehicle, range-extended electric vehicle, or electric vehicle-extended range (EREV/REEV/EVER).
In July 2007 The New York Times published an article using data from CNW Marketing Research finding that 57% of Prius buyers said their main reason for buying was that "it makes a statement about me", while just 37% cited fuel economy as a prime motivator.[210] Shortly afterwards Washington Post columnist Robert Samuelson coined the term "Prius politics" to describe a situation where the driver's desire to "show off" is a stronger motivator than the desire to curb greenhouse gas emissions.[211] Some conservatives promote use of the Toyota Prius and other hybrid cars. For example, Jim Road from What Would Jesus Drive? encouraged people to drive hybrid cars because of the damage that large SUVs and faster cars can do to others.[212]
On your next trip to Montreal, don’t waste time by waiting around for stuffy buses and expensive taxi cabs. Instead, book your Midsize rentals in Montreal today here on Expedia.com and independently explore the area at your leisure. This way, whether you’re in town for business or pleasure, you’ll have a convenient means to travel to any meetings or conferences as well as Montreal’s must-see attractions.
The Bolt proves that electric cars need not apologize for a lack of driving performance. This distinctive-looking hatchback delivers brisk acceleration and tight handling, plus a 250-mile electric range at a mainstream price (when tax incentives are factored in). This pure electric is built around a 60-kWh battery pack that holds a generous charge, reducing anxiety that you’ll run out of power and be stranded. The driver sits high up in the Bolt, with a commanding view on a par with a small SUV. Like most electric cars, the Bolt is strikingly silent, and road and wind noise are minimal. Controls take a little getting used to, and at times the ride can become choppy. All told, GM has performed an impressive feat with the Bolt.
La province que vous sélectionnez nous permet de calculer un prix estimé en fonction du PDSF pour votre véhicule. La province que vous sélectionnez nous permet de calculer un prix estimé pour votre véhicule qui inclut les frais de transport et de préparation de à , les frais de climatisation de 100 $, s’il y a lieu, et les frais du concessionnaire allant jusqu'à .
The corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standard that was introduced in 1975 with the aim of reducing fuel usage included relaxed regulations for "light trucks", to avoid business paying extra taxes for work vehicles. This created a loophole which manufacturers increasingly exploited since the 1980s, whereby SUVs were designed to be classified as light trucks (despite their primary use as passenger vehicles) to receive tax concessions and less stringent fuel economy requirements.[73] For example, the United States Environmental Protection Agency agreed to classify the Jeep Cherokee as a light truck following lobbying from its manufacturer; the Cherokee was then marketed by the company as a passenger vehicle.[74] This increased the SUV boom as other manufacturers introduced their own SUVs in response to the Cherokee taking sales from their regular cars.[75]
On the open road, the primary power source is the internal combustion engine. When maximum power is required, for example to overtake, the traction electric motor is used to assist. This increases the available power for a short period, giving the effect of having a larger engine than actually installed. In most applications, the combustion engine is switched off when the car is slow or stationary thereby reducing curbside emissions. 

The Prime has an EPA-rated all-electric range of 25 mi (40 km), over twice the range of the first generation model, and an EPA rated fuel economy of 133 mpg‑e (25.9 kW⋅h/100 mi) in all-electric mode (EV mode), the highest MPGe rating in EV mode of any vehicle rated by EPA with an internal combustion engine.[89][14] Among all-electric cars, only the Hyundai Ioniq Electric has a higher energy efficiency, rated at 136 mpg‑e (25.3 kW⋅h/100 mi; 15.7 kW⋅h/100 km).[14][15]
Emissions target: The agreement will reduce average CO2 emissions from new cars to 95 g/km from 2020, as proposed by the Commission. This is a 40% reduction from the mandatory 2015 target of 130 g/km. The target is an average for each manufacturer's new car fleet; it allows OEMs to build some vehicles that emit less than the average and some that emit more. 2025 target: The Commission is required to propose a further emissions reduction target by end-2015 to take effect in 2025. This target will be in line with the EU's long-term climate goals. Super credits for low-emission vehicles: The Regulation will give manufacturers additional incentives to produce cars with CO2 emissions of 50 g/km or less (which will be electric or plug-in hybrid cars). Each of these vehicles will be counted as two vehicles in 2020, 1.67 in 2021, 1.33 in 2022 and then as one vehicle from 2023 onwards. These super credits will help manufacturers further reduce the average emissions of their new car fleet. However, to prevent the scheme from undermining the environmental integrity of the legislation, there will be a 2.5 g/km cap per manufacturer on the contribution that super credits can make to their target in any year.[99]
Redesigned for 2018, the X3 tops its class. This luxury compact SUV combines driving enjoyment, comfort, slick technology, and utility in one appealing package. Its power is smooth and nearly immediate when you press the gas pedal, even with the base turbo four-cylinder engine. (Drivers can step up to the 355-hp M40i for truly exhilarating performance.) Sharp, sporty handling encourages drivers to seek curvy roads. The firm suspension makes you feel safe and confident, and yet the X3 does a good job soaking up ruts and bumps. Because it’s extremely quiet, richly appointed, and offers supportive seats and an easy-to-use infotainment system, the X3 is certain to delight those looking for an upscale SUV that is polished and fun to drive.
The Prius Plug-in Hybrid (ZVW35) is based on the conventional third generation (ZVW30) with a 4.4-kWh lithium-ion battery that allows an all-electric range of 23 km (14.3 mi).[72] A global demonstration program involving 600 pre-production test cars began in late 2009 and took place in Japan, Europe, Canada, China, Australia, New Zealand and the United States.[73][74][75]
The first published prototype of an SHB is by Augustus Kinzel (US Patent 3'884'317) in 1975. In 1994 Bernie Macdonalds conceived the Electrilite[4] SHB with power electronics allowing regenerative braking and pedaling while stationary. In 1995 Thomas Muller designed and built a "Fahrrad mit elektromagnetischem Antrieb" for his 1995 diploma thesis. In 1996 Jürg Blatter and Andreas Fuchs of Berne University of Applied Sciences built an SHB and in 1998 modified a Leitra tricycle (European patent EP 1165188). Until 2005 they built several prototype SH tricycles and quadricycles.[5] In 1999 Harald Kutzke described an "active bicycle": the aim is to approach the ideal bicycle weighing nothing and having no drag by electronic compensation.
Car manufacturers were keen to promote SUV sales over other types of cars due, to higher profits in the segment. An SUV could be sold with a profit margin of US$10,000 or more (US$18,000 per SUV in the case of the Ford Excursion), while compact cars were often sold at a loss of a few hundred dollars per car.[77][78][79] As a result, several manufacturing plants were converted from car production to SUV production (such as the General Motors Arlington, Texas plant in 1996) and many long-running U.S. sedan models were discontinued.[80][81][82]
While the Chrysler Pacifica Hybrid could earn a spot on this list simply for being the only hybrid minivan on the market, that’s not the reason we’ve included it (nor is that the reason we chose it as our best daily driver car of 2017). Rather, we fell in love with this people-mover for its blend of handsome styling, innovative features, comfortable ride, and driving dynamics (yes, we just said a minivan was fun to drive).
There is an impending increase in the costs of many rare materials used in the manufacture of hybrid cars.[79] For example, the rare earth element dysprosium is required to fabricate many of the advanced electric motors and battery systems in hybrid propulsion systems.[79][80] Neodymium is another rare earth metal which is a crucial ingredient in high-strength magnets that are found in permanent magnet electric motors.[81] 

Bi-fuel vehicle: Liquified petroleum gas and natural gas are very different from petroleum or diesel and cannot be used in the same tanks, so it would be impossible to build an (LPG or NG) flexible fuel system. Instead vehicles are built with two, parallel, fuel systems feeding one engine. For example, some Chevrolet Silverado 2500 HDs can effortlessly switch between petroleum and natural gas, offering a range of over 1000 km (650 miles).[34] While the duplicated tanks cost space in some applications, the increased range, decreased cost of fuel, and flexibility where LPG or CNG infrastructure is incomplete may be a significant incentive to purchase. While the US Natural gas infrastructure is partially incomplete, it is increasing at a fast pace, and already has 2600 CNG stations in place.[35] With a growing fueling station infrastructure, a large scale adoption of these bi-fuel vehicles could be seen in the near future. Rising gas prices may also push consumers to purchase these vehicles. When gas prices trade around $4.00, the price per MMBTU of gasoline is $28.00, compared to natural gas's $4.00 per MMBTU.[36] On a per unit of energy comparative basis, this makes natural gas much cheaper than gasoline. All of these factors are making CNG-Gasoline bi-fuel vehicles very attractive.
When the term hybrid vehicle is used, it most often refers to a Hybrid electric vehicle. These encompass such vehicles as the Saturn Vue, Toyota Prius, Toyota Yaris, Toyota Camry Hybrid, Ford Escape Hybrid, Toyota Highlander Hybrid, Honda Insight, Honda Civic Hybrid, Lexus RX 400h and 450h, Hyundai Ioniq and others. A petroleum-electric hybrid most commonly uses internal combustion engines (using a variety of fuels, generally gasoline or Diesel engines) and electric motors to power the vehicle. The energy is stored in the fuel of the internal combustion engine and an electric battery set. There are many types of petroleum-electric hybrid drivetrains, from Full hybrid to Mild hybrid, which offer varying advantages and disadvantages.[28]
^ Jump up to: a b c d "Alternative Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs): Trend of sales by HEV models from 1999–2010". Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Data Center (US DoE). Retrieved 5 March 2011. Total registered electric hybrids in the US is 1,888,971 vehicles until December 2010. (Click and open the Excel file for the detail by year for each model) Sales 1999–2010
×